agroforestry

Conservation and Development: What would trees, butterflies and spices have in common?

In East Usambaras Tanzania, domestication of the Allanblackia tree species, the Cardamom spice and butterflies is delivering on biodiversity conservation while at the same time sustaining livelihoods.

A study looking at their economic value over a period of five years found that the Cardamom spice generated 850USD per year for 10,600 households; the Allanblackia 20USD per year for 5000 households and the butterflies 200USD per year for 350 households.

The Cardamom attracts high economic value but with similar measure of environmental stigma because initially it prompted deforestation. However, there is now a law that prohibits clearing of forests to grow the product. In addition, farmers have realized that forests are essential for maintaining necessary climate conditions to grow the spice and so most retain or plant 75-100 trees per ha in a cardamom farm.  Allanblackia is said to be among agroforest tree species that provide local medicines, fruits, vegetables, poles, fuelwood and timber, resources that relieves pressure from forests and thus avoid deforestation and degradation. Butterfly farming has had positive effect on conservation as farmers in East Usambaras associate increased production with forests and as such have planted more than 30 native trees as part of the plantation used for food and egg-laying in butterfly rearing.

According to Meine van Noordwijk, Chief Scientist at the World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) who is among study authors, it is often claimed that domestication of forest resources can contribute to effective conservation of natural forests in the landscape as a win-win outcome. But the counterpoint is also made that economically attractive options in the forest margins will lead to further forest conversion if they work out well for local livelihoods, and maintain the trend to further pressure on the forest if they fail, so there is no win.

“When a group of us visited the East Usambaras site where the Landscape Mosaics project had been active, we realized that there is an interesting ABC of domestication being tested here,” says Meine, “We decided to compile data on the actual performance of these three commodities as part of the landscape level income and its dynamics.”

“Domestication implies a move from collecting resources from forests to taking care of the full life cycle of the products. We found that the three commodities at different stages of the process offer lessons on efficiency, sustainability of the ecosystem and sustain agility of their use over time,” says Mathew Mpanda of ICRAF Tanzania and lead author of the study.

The study, which is titled Allanblackia, butterflies and Cardamom: sustaining livelihoods alongside biodiversity conservation on the forest-agroforestry interface in the East Usambara Mountains, Tanzania compares these three commodities at different stages of domestication and shows that the biological aspects need to be embedded in the broader socio-ecological system understanding of what goes on in the landscape, if development and conservation goals are to be reached.

Download and Read more from the study

 

How Agroforestry can contribute to carbon emission reduction efforts

Agroforestry, which is the practice of integrating trees on farms and landscapes, can contribute to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) directly or indirectly. Directly as part of REDD+ if a country uses the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) forest definition of canopy cover of between 10-30%, minimum height of 2-5 metres in a minimum land area of 0.05-1hectares; and indirectly as a complement to REDD strategies.

Using various examples mainly from Africa, a new study, Prospects for agroforestry in REDD+ landscapes in Africa published in Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, explores ways agroforestry can have an impact on emission reduction efforts through REDD+.

“Cocoa agroforestry in Cameroon could for instance qualify as forest and directly contribute to REDD+ if the country adopted the UNFCCC definition,” explains Peter Minang’, the study lead author.  “In such a case, sustainable management of agro- ‘forests’, enhancement of carbon stocks within these forests, avoiding degradation, that can result through use of tree systems with less carbon, can become eligible actions within REDD+,” he says.A cocoa agroforestry system in Cameroon (© Mireille Feudjio)

However, if agroforestry does not meet the UNFCCC definition of forest in some countries, it can indirectly contribute to REDD+ strategies in several ways.

i)              Avoid deforestation through sustainable intensification and diversification. By improving soil fertility and boosting productivity through nitrogen fixing trees, farmers can maximize yields in available farm areas without the pressure to deforest to access more farm land. The study cites the example of Guinean forest of West and Central Africa where it was found that if cacao intensification had been adopted in the 1960s, an area of 21,000km2 of forests would have been spared, with potential to reduce nearly 1.4billion tonnes of carbon dioxide released to the atmosphere.

ii)            Avoid forest degradation – On farm trees can relieve forests off the pressure arising from demand for fuel-wood, charcoal, and timber, some major causes of forest degradation. Moreover, practicing agroforestry can stall leakage which happens when people do not have access to protected zones and as such over-exploit unprotected areas. In Tanzania, a study found that rotational woodlot systems over a five year period was sufficient to meet household fuel wood needs; and that acacia fallows would take less than half the time to recover carbon lost compared to replanting miombo woodlands.

In addition to these carbon benefits, agroforestry has the potential to deliver on sustainable development gains. But this potential can only be realized if certain economic, policy and research challenges to do with limited knowledge on suitable/appropriate tree species, shade management, tenure issues and access to markets are addressed.

Download paper here

Agroforestry Landscapes contributing to the Future we Want

By Paul Stapleton and Meine vanNoordwijk

The Rio+20 meetings started a process for the world to articulate the future we want through a set of Sustainable Development Goals. Landscapes with forests, trees and agroforestry will be central to achieving many of these goals. As part of its annual Science Week, the World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF)  is staging the Nairobi Landscape Day at its headquarters on Friday 13 September 2013.

The World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) has been working at the landscape level for many years and has accumulated a depth of knowledge and expertise in the approachLandscapes combine 1) people and their ambitions and livelihoods, 2) land use systems with and without trees, 3) patterns of tree cover in space and time, interacting with the topography, soils, climate, water flows, flora and fauna, 4) ecosystem services, or the benefits humans derive from functioning (agro)ecosystems, 5) stakeholders who care about what happens with the services and the underlying natural and social capital, 6) governance mechanisms by which stakeholders can influence, in positive or negative ways, what people do. This completes the circle, or logical loop, leading to overall degradation (in many of our landscapes), restoration or gradual improvement. The future earth we want will have zero (net) degradation, as one of the proposed sustainable development goals articulates. A large new scientific effort coordinated by all academies of science in the world is now zooming in on this FuturEarth concept.

The World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) has been working at the landscape level for many years and has accumulated a depth of knowledge and expertise in the approach. Nairobi Landscape Day will have four events: an eye-opening lecture on future earth, sustainable development goal, agroforestry and experience with landscape approaches so far; a virtual fieldtrip around the world, visiting live examples of how people and landscapes  interact across the 6 aspects;  an open house, where we show our various approaches to landscapes; a discussion panel on the demand for and supply of scientific analysis to support these feedback loops.

ICRAF scientists Cheikh Mbow, Sara Namirembe and Peter Minang will talk about “Agroforestry Landscapes, Sustainable Development Goals and the Future Earth We Want.”

In 2015 world leaders will take stock of the achievements of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and will see evidence that concrete targets that have the support of the global policy community can actually help in reducing poverty. However, the MDG on sustainable development will have little progress to show. In anticipation of this discussion, a UN-lead process has started to come up with a set of Sustainable Development Goals that build on the MDGs but give more operational clarity on the environmental side. Current drafts of the goals suggest that agroforestry can be relevant in meeting many of these SDGs. The lecture will introduce the Future Earth initiative, give an update on the development of the SDGs and start a discussion how agroforestry at large and ICRAF specifically can best participate.

After the lecture, participants will be taken on a virtual tour of the landscapes in Asia, Africa and Latin America where ICRAF works on integrated approaches. Since the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, we have become increasingly aware of the wide range of ecosystem services derived from landscapes. These include things like clean water, flood, droughts and soil erosion control, land and biodiversity conservation, in addition to agricultural and forest production. This session will answer the questions: Who is involved in farming, cutting and planting trees? What benefits do farmers get from trees, agroforestry practices and agroforestry land use? Which trees are where in the landscape? How do trees contribute to ecosystem services? Who cares and is a stakeholder of positive or negative change in landscape performance? How can stakeholders influence and have average on the drivers of change to which farmers respond?

A key feature of the landscape approach is that it integrates land and soil , agriculture, forests, trees, people, animals and water rather than treating them separately.  The landscape approach embraces these various landscape functions and seeks to manage land at the range of scales necessary to ensure sustainable development. After the tour, a summary will be given of the tools and approaches that have been developed during Science Week for integrated approaches, welcoming partners to share their work related to the landscape.

Adopting a landscape approach will have a range of impacts, such as preserving forests, raising the number of useful trees in the landscape, increasing agricultural production and food security, restoring degraded land and halting further land degradation and desertification, conserving biodiversity, contributing to poverty eradication, mitigating the effects of climate change and promoting a greener economy. The mix of these outcomes will vary according to context and local needs and aspirations.

As an essential part of the Day’s activities, there will be a panel discussion on the demand for scientific agroforestry knowledge for sustainable development goals, and the supply of such knowledge by the CGIAR and Future Earth academic science, chaired by ICRAF Deputy Director General, Research, Dr. Ravi Prabhu.

This should highlight ways to meet development challenges that do not jeopardize how future generations will be able to derive benefits from the products and services of the landscapes that support us today.

 Venue:      ICRAF Conference Hall                             

Day:          Friday 13th September, 2013

Time:        08:30 – 17:30hrs

Please plan to attend and distribute widely.  For further details on the event, contact Stella Muasya at s.muasya@cgiar.org  or Elizabeth Kahurani e.kahurani@cgiar.org

Agroforestry: Farmers produce more with less

Agustine Mbugua is reaping the benefits of conservation agriculture in his single acre piece of land in the Ngata Division of Nakuru County, 170km west of Nairobi. “Not only have I stopped using fertiliser on my farm because the manure from the crop cover provides enough nutrients to the crops, but the labour costs have gone down.

Landscape approach to future forest and tree management

This presentation by WorldAgrofrestry Director General, Prof Tony Simons, explains what is a landscape approach and why it is needed for future forest and tree resources management.

Guide to carbon market access for farmers in India

How can smallholder farmers participate and benefit from the growing carbon market? A new report by the WorldAgrofrestry Center (ICRAF) shows that through a SMART-CDM approach, farmers can engage in specific, measurable, achievable, realistic and tangible practices to qualify access to carbon markets.

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