ASB

Knowledge Generation & Use

Image

Where, What

Story

More Information

GLOBAL

 

Output

Potential Outcome

In the ten years since 1994, ASB scientists have produced more than 700 publications and other scientific products, including over 200 journal articles and more than 90 books and book chapters, and a public website. These are widely distributed through our network of partners, including to the libraries of major universities (e.g.Cornell University) and international organizations (e.g. IUCN - World Conservation Union).

§  "Success Story Details" document

§  List of ASB synthesis publications

§  ASB Publications database

§  ASB Website, www.asb.cgiar.org

GLOBAL

 

Outcome

Output

ASB has achieved sustained engagement betweenscientists and "policy shapers" over the past decade, including through the ASB Policybriefs Series. Policybriefs are distributed to more than 750 readers in institutions ranging from the World Bank to the Ministry of Environment in the Netherlands to the Ministry of Agriculture in Peru.

§  "Success Story Details" Document

§  ASB Policybriefs series

 

GLOBAL

 

Outcome

Potential Impact

The ASB matrix method was adopted as a tool for sustainable land management (SLM) by the World Bank in 2004. Bank Land Resources Advisor Eric Fernandes to Kenneth Chomitz and other Bank officials: "The ASB consortium is one of the very few groups to have tackled this problem [of assessing synergies and tradeoffs] head on and they have developed a matrix and associated methods and indicators that facilitate tradeoff analyses. What do you think about using their matrix as a jump-off point for our continued discussions on environmental services and payments against a backdrop of the key biophysical, environmental, social, economic and institutional indicators identified in their work?"

§  "Success Story Details" document

§  Kenneth Chomitz (personal communication, 19 March 2004)

§  Eric Fernandes (personal communication 18 March 2004)

 

GLOBAL

 

Outcome

The ASB Policybriefs series has been used in courses at University of California ( Berkeley), Southern Cross University ( Australia), University ofCalifornia ( Davis), Lund University ( Sweden),Cornell University, and others.

§  Chris Barrett ( CornellUniversity)

§  Robin Marsh (UC Berkeley, 2003)

§  Jerry Van Clay (Southern Cross, 2002)

§  Steve Vosti (UC Davis, 2003)

 

SOUTHEAST ASIA

 

Outcome

The basic article describing the ASB matrix methodology is reprinted in The Economic Development of Southeast Asia (Hal Hill, ed.,Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing). This multi-volume collection is intended to represent an element of a core collection for university libraries across Southeast Asia.

§  "Agricultural Development with Rainforest Conservation: Methods for Seeking Best Bet Alternatives to Slash-and-Burn, with Applications toBrazil and Indonesia" in The Economic Development of Southeast Asia (Hal Hill, ed.,Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing)

 

AMAZON

 

Outcome

Potential Impact

ASB methodology (including the matrix) features significantly in the design of a $16 million, 7 year project being planned in Brazil through UNDP-GEFvia Pro-Natura on "Promoting Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biodiversity in Frontier Forests in Northwest Mato Grosso".

Andy Gillison (personal communication - 30 June 2001)

 

AMAZON

 

Outcome

The "fundamental concepts and measurements contained in [a report on Ecuador produced for IDRC] have their origins in collaborative field research done by members of the ASB" team. They were used for socioeconomic analyses ofproduction systems in Ecuador.

Final report to IDRC by Steve Vosti et al. (Summer 2004)

SOUTHEAST ASIA

 

Outcome

Potential Impact

The consultant leading preparation for a new Asian Development Bank project on "Flood Mitigation in Selected Watersheds" approached ICRAF/ASB to make use of research on upper watersheds in the design of these projects. Meine van Noordwijk, ICRAF Regional Coordinator and ASB Regional Facilitator:  "Influencing the design of large development projects.have potential multiplier effects way beyond what we can plan and achieve ourselves."

Meine van Noordwijk (personal communication, May 2004)

 

AMAZON

 

Outcome

Potential Impact

The ASB Summary Report on Brazil is being used in the development of a management programme for the San Roque Lake Watershed in Brazil.

Andrew Hamilton Joseph, President, Los Algarrobos Civil Association (personal communication - 26 April 2003)

GLOBAL

 

Outcome

ASB has played a key role in shaping understanding of the driving forces of land use change at the tropical forest margins, which has informed debate regarding priorities and approach at the global level. This evolving understanding has influenced ASB's own scientific hypotheses, from a narrow perspective on smallholder productivity growth as the key to slowing deforestation; to a more complex understanding of the various conflicting interest groups causing deforestation and how supporting negotiation at a landscape level is more likely to lead to lasting change. ASB itself was formed as a result of an inaugural workshop held in Porto Velho, Rondonia, Brazil(February 1992) with 26 environmental policymakers and researchers. Porto Velhoparticipants brought the issue to the Rio EarthSummit later that year. They succeeded in including two crucial recommendations about shifting cultivation and tropical forest margins as part of Agenda 21. Before that, the policy debate on how to slow tropical deforestation paid little attention to the needs of slash-and-burn farmers.

§ "Success Story Details" document

§ ASB History document

§ ASB Policybrief #5

§ Evolution of ASB document - TPT draft 18 January 2005

§ Chapter 1 (Sanchez et al) in ASB book

Aerial view of unspoilt area of the Tesso Nilo

GLOBAL &

SOUTHEAST ASIA

 

Activity

Outcome

Impact

ASB researchers developed a cost-effective method for rapid appraisal of vascular plant biodiversity which was developed and tested at all benchmark sites. The method was designed to assess the difference in species composition, functional attributes and structure along a landuse gradient from primary forest to degraded cropland. These ASB rapid survey methods have led to major progress on biodiversity conservation inIndonesia, most tangibly playing a key role in designation of a new national park in Sumatra, covering 33,000 ha presently and planned to expand by another 120,000 ha. ASB partner Andy Gillison conducted biodiversity assessments using ASB methods in the Tesso Nilo area of Central Sumatra, Indonesia. The results were influential indeclaration of Tesso Nilo as a conservation priority area and national park in October 2003.

§ "Success Story Details" document

§ Contact Andy Gillison

GLOBAL

 

Output

ASB produces the ASB Voices series, to convey for a broad audience insights and perspectives from people's real-life experiences and challenges in the humid tropics. The idea of bringing voices from the field to a policy audience has been adopted by others now, including the Sustainable Tree Crops Programme in West and Central Africa.

§ ASB Voices

§ List of ASB Synthesis publications

§ STCP Voices

GLOBAL

 

Output

ASB has made seminal contributions to the evolvingintegrated natural resource management (INRM) paradigm that is characterized by a process-oriented, systems approach at multiple scales and an emphasis on measurement and scaling oftradeoffs and impacts across stakeholder groups. ASB will continue to build on and improve this innovative, integrated approach including through its contribution of a cross-cutting assessment entitled, "Forest and Agroecosystem Tradeoffs in the Humid Tropics (Tropical Forest Margins)" for the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment.

§ CGIAR meta-analysis hosted by World Bank (full report and thematic and working group papers)

§ Natural Resources Management Research in the CGIAR: A Meta-Evaluation by Christopher B. Barrett

§ Annex H of the EU Proposal for a graph of the INRM paradigm

 

GLOBAL

 

Outcome

Henzell Review (2000): "The Alternatives to Slash and Burn Programme has gone further than the others in relating its research sites to the whole area over which the problem occurs, and in scaling up to the global level in its findings on tradeoffs . This is very helpful for the  global debate on sustainability issues."

§ CGIAR's "First Review of Systemwide Programmes with an Ecoregional Approach" (called the Henzell Review) in 2000

GLOBAL

 

Output

Potential Outcome

ASB's contribution to the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) aims to synthesize results across ASB benchmark sites at the tropical forest margins and place these results within the broader context of relevant scientific evidence. ASB was chosen as the only sub-global assessment working across regions in the tropics. 

§ ASB MA Status Report

§ ICRAF 2 pager: "Gauging the Planet's Health: ASB part of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment" (2003-41-LA/SEA/HWA)

GLOBAL

 

Activity

Potential Outcome

In 2003-4, ASB conducted user needs consultations through interviews in key countries to prepare the foundation for its MA contribution. It provides a solid idea of the real research questions of farmers and policy makers across the humid tropics.

ASB MA Status Report (Section on User Needs)

 

 

 

GLOBAL

 

Outcome

ASB was cited as one of only 3 examples of "Partnerships and Network Organizations Supporting Ecoagriculture", with the MA and IUCN's Sustainable Use Initiative.

Annex 7b in "Trends and Gaps in Ecoagriculture-Related Research" (2004) (Louise Buck, Thomas Gavin, DavidLee, Norman Uphoff)

 

GLOBAL

 

Output

ASB methods are making it possible to accurately and quickly assess belowground biodiversity, an approach developed by a team of scientists during the benchmark site characterization phase of ASB. The work on belowground biodiversity is the subject of a major GEF-funded project, the "Conservation and Sustainable Management of Below-Ground Biodiversity" (CSM-BGBD) Project. The project is coordinated by ASB partner, the Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility Institute of CIAT (TSBF-CIAT).

§ Chapter in Slash and Burn book: "Belowground biodiversity assessment: The ASB Functional Group Approach"

§ ASB Project Descriptions

GLOBAL

 

Product

ASB researchers evaluated various tree-based systems at benchmark sites and found comparable average carbon stocks during the course of rotations. In order tocompare the potential for carbon sequestration in a system, a method was developed and validated for computation of time-averaged carbon stocks, or the average carbon stored in the system over the rotation time of the system. ASB calculations indicate that tree-based land uses sequester about 6 times more carbon that annual crops or pastures. ASB findings show that there is potential for increased C sequestration in soils through the rehabilitation of degraded pastures and grasslands, but the largest sequestration potential in the humid tropics is above-ground through the adoption of tree-based land uses.

§ ASB Climate Change working group report

§ Contact Cheryl Palm

 

 

 

GLOBAL

 

Outcome

ASB's work on carbon stocks in different tropical land use systems was used as an input to theIntergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's special report on Land Use, Land-use Change, and Forestry.

IPCC Special Report, Land Use, Land-Use Change, and Forestry (2000)

 

GLOBAL

 

Product

ASB Peru greenhouse gas flux measurements are being used by Colorado State University to create a new version of the CENTURY gas flux model for the tropics.

ASB Peru Synthesis Report

GLOBAL

 

Outcome

ASB mapping efforts have explored overlays between population and deforestation; agricultural land use and tropical rainforests; and other issues. These have shed new light on thescale and scope of the domain which ASB and others are dealing with.

§ ASB maps online atwww.asb.cgiar.org

§ Contact Kate Sebastian, IFPRI

 

AMAZON &SOUTHEAST ASIA

 

Output

ASB partners are researching conditions under which coffee can be grown in shade tree systems, a more sustainable alternative to the prevailing monoculture coffee cropping in Braziland Indonesia.

ASB Project Descriptions

W&C AFRICA

 

Potential outcome

In Cameroon, ASB partners are modeling plausible scenarios involving oil palm development in Cameroon. They will be sharing these results with policy makers to support their planning efforts.

§ ASB Video - Jean Tonye "Oil Palm Prediction Model"

§ Report Christopher Legg, Innocent Bakkam

 

AMAZON

 

Outcome

ASB Brazil results were directly applied in agro-ecological zoning in Acre State, including the first agroforestry potential map (potential land suitability for agroforestry) for Brazil.

§ Contact Judson Valentim

§ Chapter in Slash-and-Burn book (J. Valentim, S. A. Vosti, 2005)

 

GLOBAL

 

Outcome

Louise Jackson of University of California, Davisis consulting ASB's process documentation toguide the reformation of DIVERSITAS, an interdisciplinary international research programme on biodiversity conservation.

Louise Jackson and Steve Vosti, personal communication (September 2004)

GLOBAL & SOUTHEAST ASIA

 

Outcome

ASB's hydrological research on watersheds inSoutheast Asia is helping debunk myths about tropical forests and water. Some specific quotes from an email about a 2005 briefing session at the World Bank: "We are getting enthusiastic reviews for the workshop: 'mind-blowing'; 'one of the best workshops I've ever attended at the Bank'; 'I learned a lot.which will certainly influence the preparation of [watershed projects].' It is clear that [the project results] are getting serious attention and are quite likely to change attitudes and practice." An earlier ASB hydrological study by Sampurno Bruijnzeel was picked up by Polex Listserver, CIFOR's forest policy expert listserver, which goes to many of the key thinkers on forest policy around the world. It referred to Bruijnzeel as "the world's leading expert on how deforestation, reforestation, and logging affect water in the tropics." World Banksenior environmental economist Gunars Platais commenting on a draft of Bruijnzeel's article "found it a great compilation and analysis of what is out there. Lots of debunking going on." He had it translated into Spanish for his work in Latin America.

§ "Success Story Details" document, which includes full email from Ken Chomitz (February 28)

§ World Bank BNPP Comprehensive Water Assessment

§ Chapters in AGEE special issue on Theme 3 Watershed Services, including: "Hydrological functions of tropical forests: not seeing the soil for the trees?"

§ CIFOR's Polex listserver: "Flip Flop Hydrology" (21 October 2004)

§ Gunars Platais (personal communication, 15 July 2003)

W & C AFRICA

 

Output

Outcome

The ASB Voices of the Future provides the perspective of younger members of rural households, especially adolescents. Cameroonian Prisca Oye's story contributed to a deeper understanding of young people's aspirations at the forest margins (leave the farm, become a teacher) and was the subject of some controversy when first released because of its implicit message that young people should have the skills and options to choose a future outside the farm. 

ASB Voices of the Future series

 

AMAZON

 

Outcome

ASB research (the linear programming model and other outputs) helped Embrapa analyze the potential contributions of increased rice yields to reducing deforestation, which turned out to be very low and ran counter to their expectations. Precisely the opposite happened in the context of managed forestry research, again in part due to ASB research that showed the results ofresearch on managed forestry could be beneficial in terms of poverty reduction, growth and environmental sustainability. The usefulness of these approaches has helped raise the priority of social science research in Embrapa's programmes.

§ Steve Vosti (personal communication, March 2005)

§ Judson Valentim (personal communication, 2003)

§ Chapter in Slash-and-Burn book: "Resource Use and Human Welfare at the Forest Margins of the Western Brazilian Amazon" (J. Valentim, S. A. Vosti, 2005)

SOUTHEAST ASIA

& AMAZON

 

Outcome

ASB scientists in Southeast Asia and the Amazon are breaking new ground with their understanding and appreciation of Local Ecological Knowledge (LEK), the understanding that local people have gained through personal experience and sometimes centuries of learning, about the natural elements and processes of their specific agro-ecosystems. LEK is complementary to scientific knowledge, and helps researchers plan and implement projects and activities more quickly and successfully than in the past.

§ 2 pager from ICRAF "Farmers' Local Ecological Knowledge" (2003-24-ES-SEA/LA)

§ ASB Video - Pornchai Preechapanya "Linking Local Knowledge with Science"

§ Concept note

§ Article

 

SOUTHEAST ASIA

 

Product

Econometric models developed by ASB researchers to analyze the evolution ofcustomary land and tree tenure institutions inSumatra, Indonesia, demonstrated the efficiency and adaptability of these institutions.

Various publications by Suyanto, Otsuka and Tomich

 

SOUTHEAST ASIA & AMAZON

 

Product

Regionally disaggregated macroeconomic models were developed to assess the impacts of major macroeconomic shocks and policy changes on land use in Brazil and Indonesia with special attention paid to the Amazon andSumatra. Land uses, including deforestation, incomes and wage rates were simulated for each region. Results suggest that major shocks in the late 1990s will have large and potentially lasting impacts on human welfare and the natural resource base.

§ Cattaneo and Nu Nu San chapter in the Slash and Burn book

§ IFPRI Research Report #129

AMAZON

 

Outcome

The Tipitamba / SHIFT Project of Northeastern Amazonia promotes mulching equipment which allows for fire-free land preparation, providing an alternative to slash-and-burn. University of Bonn and Embrapa researchers replicated the ASB matrix and other methods for a site in the state of Para to undertake a broader analysis of these technologies, in particular bringing in economic analysis (purchase of equipment, returns to labour, etc.) and application of a bio-economic model adapted from one developed by ASB. ZEF News article: "The measurable social costs of slash-and-burn turned out to be lower than expected and do not call for immediate policy action.On the other hand, if this technology is adopted, due to favorable economic conditions, the environmental services of fallowing are reduced."

§ ZEF News, October 2004 "Technological innovations. Potential and Constraints: selected findings from a recently completed project on smallholder agriculture in the Eastern Amazon Region"

§ Contact Tatiana Sa

§ Contact Steve Vosti

 

AMAZON

 

Outcome

Potential Impact

As part of the Tipitamba / SHIFT Project in the Eastern Amazon, a study was carried out by theUniversity of Bonn and Embrapa. It shows potential for exchange among ASB partners in East and West Amazon. ZEF News article: "Technological innovations emerging in the Eastern and the Western Amazon were juxtaposed to investigate options that one region could provide to the other.Improved pasture technologies for cattle production and legume-based fallow systems [developed by ASB partners] in the Western Amazon represent alternatives for larger and capital-endowed farmers in the Eastern Amazon."

§ ZEF News, October 2004 "Technological innovations. Potential and Constraints"

§ Contact Tatiana Sa

§ Contact Judson Valentim

SOUTHEAST ASIA

 

Output

ASB undertook biodiversity assessments of land uses on the Thai and Sumatra forest margins, and did so at a landscape scale. This has set an example for how to work at a broader environmental and social context, as well as provide the basis for decision-making in these two countries. Similar assessments have been undertaken in Peru and Brazil.

 

§ Thai synthesis report (draft)

§ Indonesia synthesis report

§ Chapter in AGEE special issue: "Assessing biodiversity at landscape level in Northern Thailand and Sumatra: the importance of environmental context"

 

SOUTHEAST ASIA

 

Output

ASB / ICRAF's work on rubber agroforestry ("jungle rubber") in Bungo district of Indonesia is now being shared more broadly through video. By highlighting results like how productivity of jungle rubber can be improved by better planting materials, the video is able to document, disseminate and advocate these activities in a way that easily understood by the target audience of farmer and decision makers at the local level.

§ Bogor Tales Vol 3(11) "Jungle Rubber Video"

§ Contact Susilo Adi Kuncoro (skuncoro@cgiar.org)

ASB Benchmark Sites

ASB Benchmark Sites

ASB works at the margins of the world's remaining tropical rainforests, in landscape mosaics. These rainforests are an invaluable natural heritage and home to over one billion rural people. Through this network of sites that spans the humid tropics, ASB ensures that its analyses of local and national perspectives are grounded in reality.

ASB households, communities, and policymakers live and work in 12 benchmark sites in:

These sites are large areas (ranging from about 100 - 1000 km2) for long-term study and engagement with households, communities and policymakers.

All sites are located in the humid tropical and sub-tropical broadleaf forest biome (as mapped by the Worldwide Fund for Nature). This is the world's most biologically diverse terrestrial biome by far, and conversion of these forests to other uses leads to the greatest species loss per unit area of any land cover change. Most of ASB benchmark sites are also biodiversity hotspots (as mapped by Conservation International).

ASB partners work to understand problems, opportunities and constraints of households, and local and national policymakers. In this way, participatory research guides the iterative process necessary to identify and develop policy, institutional and technological options that are workable and relevant.

ASB's multi-site network ensures that the search for effective policy, institutional and technological interventions is well grounded in science, is carried out uniformly, and is appropriate to local conditions and customs. What makes ASB unusually effective in the arena of natural resource management research is that it uses standardized methods and research questions at all sites, thereby generating data and knowledge that can be compared across sites and, indeed, across the tropics.

Adopt context specific solutions to deforestation, UN climate meeting told

By Josephine Njoroge, edited by Elizabeth Kahurani

Ahead of tomorrow`s Forest Day 6 discussion forum on drivers of deforestation hosted by the World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), Dr Peter Minang’, a Senior Scientist and Global Coordinator of the ASB Partnership  said that causes of deforestation are unique to regions and that there is no ‘one size fits all’ approach to ending the problem. “For instance, in Latin America, forests are lost due to establishment of cattle ranches while in Africa, smallholder farmers continue to engage in shifting cultivation. There is also a widespread trend to establish vast industrial plantations for oil palms in Asia and in other parts of the world,” Peter explained with caution that history is a poor predictor of future drivers of deforestation.

Challenges and Prospects for REDD+ in Africa

Done right, REDD+ can bring some attractive benefits to developing countries, including finances that can be applied to various areas of development.

According to Dr. Cheikh Mbow, however, poorly implemented REDD+ initiatives could negatively impact the livelihoods of the very communities it was designed to benefit, particularly rural people who depend on forest resources. Mbow is a senior climate change scientist with the World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) and lead author of the recent new report titled ‘Challenges and Prospects for REDD+ in Africa: Desk Review Of REDD+ Implementation in Africa.” The report sought to synthesize the ever-growing number of REDD+ activities under implementation in Africa, including the actors, objectives, means of execution, and outcomes.

“Within the African context, a range of deforestation pressures, financial resources, technical capacity and a diverse array of interest groups present challenges to REDD+ implementation,” he adds. Read more

ASB congratulates Prof. Fahmuddin Agus on Research Professor award

Please join us to congratulate Prof. Fahmuddin Agus, a representative of the ASB Partnership Global Steering Group on his inauguration as a research professor in hydrology and soil conservation. The inauguration was held by The Ministry of Agriculture of Indonesia and Indonesian Sciences Institute (LIPI) in Bogor, West Java, Indonesia on September 26th, 2012. 

Prof. Fahmuddin (left) being congratulated by familyDuring his inauguration, Prof. Fahmuddin talked about Soil and Carbon Conservation for Climate Change Mitigation to Support Sustainable Agricultural Development. He emphasized the importance of low carbon degraded lands for agricultural expansion and avoiding the use of forest and peatland for agricultural development. He also pointed out several mitigation options that potentially  contribute to economic development, agricultural and environmental  sustainability. These include rehabilitation of degraded lands for plantations, intensification of agriculture, especially among the smallholders and soil organic matter management. He added that appropriate selection of the options of mitigation-adaptation interface will contribute to Indonesia's national pledge of 26% emission reduction by 2020. 

Born in Bukittinggi, Sumatera,  Fahmuddin  earned his BS degree from Andalas University in Indonesia in 1983. His master and doctoral degrees in soil science were from North Carolina State University (NCSU), Raleigh, USA  in 1989 and 1993.  He is a senior soil scientist at Indonesian Soil Research Institute (ISRI). He coordinates ISRI’s climate change related research under the ASB Partnership consortium and under the national research programme. He is also actively engaged in sustainable natural resources management and climate  change mitigation fora, including the Roundtable for Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) and a lead author of the 2013 IPCC Supplement on Wetland Emissions.    

How much would REDD+ boost Philippines forest budget?

By Elizabeth Kahurani

REDD+ could provide a huge financial boost to forest conservation plans in developing countries like the Philippines. A new study titled, Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation plus (REDD+) in the Philippines: will it make a difference in financing forest development?  shows that if the country was to reduce the rate of forest degradation by 5 to 15% and at the same time increase reforestation rate by 1.5% annually, Philippines could approximately sequester up to 60million tonnes of carbon by 2030.

Drawing from country experiences to design REDD+ Safeguard Information Systems

A key determinant of REDD+ success will be the continued development and implementation of safeguards. An important element of REDD+ safeguards is systems for providing information on how safeguards are addressed and respected.

Landscape approach to future forest and tree management

This presentation by WorldAgrofrestry Director General, Prof Tony Simons, explains what is a landscape approach and why it is needed for future forest and tree resources management.

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