ASB

Meeting explores low emission development scenarios

By Glenn Hyman, International Center for Tropical Agriculture

Pucallpa, Peru - Last week more than 25 professionals working on issues related to reducing greenhouse gas emissions met in the city of Pucallpa, Peru to discuss low emissions development scenarios. The workshop was organized by the World Agroforestry Center (ICRAF) and the Regional Government of Ucayali, with participation of other institutions working in sustainable development in the region. The initiative is an activity of the ASB Partnership for the Tropical Forest Margins.

Group discussion during training on methodologies to estimate the costs and benefits of development, Pucallpa, PeruThe workshop was a combination of discussions on regional planning and of training in methodologies to estimate the costs and benefits of development. During the workshop’s first day, participants discussed different development scenarios, including the effects of increases in deforestation and increases in the development of certain crops. Subsequent days were used to estimate the impact of different development scenarios. Toward that end, ICRAF scientists gave training in the ABACUS software. Sonya Dewi and Degi Harja, of ICRAF’s Southeast Asia headquarters, traveled all the way from Indonesia to give instructions and how to use the software tool, as well as explaining low emissions development planning methodology. ABACUS  estimates greenhouse gas emissions and sequestration from land-use change and the opportunity costs of avoiding such changes.

On the last day of the workshop, workgroups presented the results of their simulations before a group of decision-makers in the region, including Franz Orlando Tang Jara, director of the Natural Resources Department of Ucayali and Miguel Vasquez, President of the Oil Palm Roundtable, among others. A news article by Peru national REDD Group had earlier indicated that the training would benefit officials from various government ministries.

The participants produced many interesting results and many questions to be answered with future research. Finding a balance between economic development and reducing greenhouse gas emissions will have its complications and difficulties. Some projections for growth of the oil Palm industry are going to imply substantial conversion of forests simply for the lack of other available lands. The development of new transportation infrastructure may have enormous impacts and requires much more research to understand the costs and benefits of these planned developments. The ASB  Partnership will publish a final report of the workshop at the end of May.

Read this article in Spanish here

Download: Landuse Planning for Low Emission Development Strategy

Capacity Building & Training

Untitled Document

Image

Where, What

Story

More Information

GLOBAL

 

Uptake

Outcome

Much institutional innovation occurs at national levels as ASB scientists work within NARS partners in developing national research strategies which combine environmental and development concerns. ASB insightsinfluence the NARS' priorities for the countries we work in. For example, in Empraba, research priorities are set by a participatory planning process.  ASB partner Judson Valentim served on this panel and introduced ASB results.

§  "Success Story Details" document

§  Story of Embrapa in Brazil

§  Story of INIA in Peru

 

 

AMAZON

 

Outcome

In Brazil, scientists from Embrapa have led the incorporation of environmental insights derived from their collaborative work with ASB intoEmbrapa's agricultural research agenda. The ASB matrix is a key tool that influences thinking of researchers and policymakers in the region, including awareness of new issues particularly environmental variables. It also prompted analysis at a landscape level, where previously research had tended to be of land use systems in isolation. Embrapa scientists, who spearhead ASB work in the Brazilian Amazon, are reorienting their research to explore new options and increasing their links with policymakers. In a dramatic shift in priorities, the Embrapa station in Acre now aspires to become the centre of excellence for sustainable natural forest management. This vision of future possibilities is shared by the political leadership of Acre, where "Governo da Floresta" now is displayed on state vehicles and public buildings. This motto signals that Acre's policies focus on sustainable use of forest resources. As scientists and policymakers work in partnership with farmers, there is hope that a new set of opportunities can be created for the forests to be the foundation of livelihoods for the people of Acre.

§  "Success Story Details" document

§  ASB Voices #3 - Virgulino da Costa Nascimento

§  Chapter in Slash-and-Burn book: "Resource Use and Human Welfare at the Forest Margins of the Western Brazilian Amazon" (J. Valentim, S. A. Vosti, 2005)

 

GLOBAL

 

Activity

Outcome

Intensive training courses in natural resource survey and rapid biodiversity assessmentdeveloped by ASB scientists has been a success in 8 developing countries.

§  "Success Story Details" document

§  Contact Andy Gillison

 

AMAZON

 

Outcome

Empraba senior researcher, Jair Carvalho dosSantos, uses the ASB Matrix in his work inAcre, Brazil: "I consider the matrix as one of the best models for comparing productive systems. It is conceptually sound and helps focus on the environmental, social, and economic aspects of production in a quantitative way. In my work in Acre, this offers a tool for analyzing socio-economic aspects of various traditional and alternative systems." (September 4, 2003)

§  Email from Jair Carvalho dos Santos, 4 September 2003

 

AMAZON

 

Outcome

 

As Peru's national agricultural research institute, INIA, has gained a stronger understanding of the value of forests and reforestation through ASB's research, it has greatly expanded its programme of work on forest issues. ASB partners and their work have helped INIA see the relevance of forests / trees for agriculture. The people who worked with ASB were strong champions for this expansion, especially for the Amazon (e.g. Angel Salazar, Alberto Riesco, Julio Alegre). INIA's forest research sites have increased from just 6 a few years ago to 22 currently. In 2005, INIA will start work in even more places.

§  Contact Ymber Flores

§  Contact Angel Salazar, Julio Alegre, Alberto Riesco

 

 

 

GLOBAL &

SOUTHEAST ASIA

 

Output

Potential Outcome

Translating ASB research findings intopractical lecture notes for curriculaaround the world: A slide series and a set of lecture notes based on research results from ASB activities has been used in universities in Southeast Asia. ASB national consortia are translating the existing English notes into other languages of the tropics.

§  ASB Lecture Notes

§  Contact Meine van Noordwijk

AMAZON

 

Outcome

Impact

Newsweek quote: "Embrapa cattle expert Judson Valentim hastaught a generation of ranchers in the Western Amazon Basin how to triple their herds without cutting down a single additional hectare of rainforest, but he does it on a shoestring.He does this by using artificial insemination to boost the productivity of the herds, rotating them to avoid overgrazing, and swapping traditional brachiaria grass, which turns into a bug-infested stubble in the tropics, with kudzu or tropical peanut, which thrives and keeps the soil moist. Spreading the word might rescue theAmazon's 20 million hectares (half the size ofDenmark) of abandoned pastures. Yet official support for such technology ($154,000 a year) is a fraction of whatBrasilia spends on policing the Amazon."

§  Newsweek International article " Brazil's growing power: the country is planting its once arid frontier and fast becoming an agro-business titan" by Mac Margolis (February 23, 2004) (full article at www.msnbc.msn.com/id/
7369913/site/newsweek/

AMAZON

 

Activity

Potential Outcome

The Amazon Initiative is designed to support the setting of national research agendas in benchmark countries, as well as in other countries of the Amazon. This consortium of major research and development institutions has been formed to help prevent, reduce and reverse land degradation by promoting policies and technologies for sustainable land management in the region. It was strongly based on existing ASB collaboration in the region, as well as ASB research.

§  Amazon Initiative website

§  ASB Project Descriptions

§  ASB Video - Roberto Porro "ASB and the Amazon Initiative"

 

 

AMAZON


Outcome

The method for measuringcarbon sequestration in land use systemsdeveloped by ASB is being used by Embrapa in two projects, by researchers who had been trained in carbon measurement by ASB. Also, results obtained on shaded coffee were analyzed in the economic model. 

§  ASB Video - Marilia Locatelli "Southern Scientist Capacity-Building"

§  Project: Chrononsequence characterizations for carbon fixation evaluation in land use systems

§  Project: Above Ground Carbon Stock Quantification in Conventional and alternative Land Use Systems in Amazon Region.

 

GLOBAL

 

Activity

Outcome

Ongoing process documentation and evaluationof ASB's development and implementation of the iNRM paradigm improves organizational efficiency within the programme and captures strategic insights relevant to other programmes. Organizational successes and difficulties are receiving specific attention from new international partners with expertise in study of social learning processes.

§  Paper on Challenges of Integration

§  ASB Governance Document

§  CGIAR meta-analysis hosted by World Bank (full report and thematic and working group papers)http://www.worldbank.org/oed/cigar/index.html

§  Natural Resources Management Research in the CGIAR: A Meta-Evaluation by Christopher B. Barrett

 

AMAZON

 

Outcome

The State Polytechnic in Acre uses ASB material in developing its curriculum. 

Contact Judson Valentim

 

AMAZON

 

Outcome

The Federal Rural University in Para uses ASB lecture notes in its graduate curriculum on agroforestry. This is the only PhD programme on agroforestry inBrazil.

Contact Marilia Locatelli

GLOBAL

 

Activity

Outcome

ASB experience shows thatSouth-South exchange is among the most effective means to achieve breakthroughs in understanding for researchers, policymakers, community leaders. Three south-south exchange possibilities that are being developed are for the RUPES work, tree domestication work, and restoration of degraded land.

§  Proposal for Cameroon - Madagascar exchange

§  ASB Video - Meine van Noordwijk "Sharing Lessons from RUPES"

§  ASB Video - Rafael Posada "South-South Exchange through ASB"

§  Concept note on South-South exchange

 

GLOBAL

 

Outcome

ASB is characterized bylong-term working relationshipsamong partners, including through their involvement in ASB's thematic working groups.

§  "Success Story Details" document

§  ASB Video - Marilia Locatelli "Southern Scientist Capacity-Building"

§  Working Group reports

SOUTHEAST ASIA

 

Outcome

The Ministry of Agriculture and Agricultural Cooperatives of Thailand awarded a gold plaque of honour to DavidThomas, a long-standing ASB scientist who heads the ICRAF office inThailand. He was commended for his assistance to the Royal Forest Department.

Contact David Thomas

 

GLOBAL

 

Activity

Output

Potential Outcome

ASB'sparticipatory methods and negotiation support toolshave influenced partners' work in the ASB countries. Action research at specific sites have identified and tested workable mechanisms for efficient and effective participation of multiple groups of stakeholders that have differing (often conflicting) interests in environmental and development outcomes. 

Working Paper on NRM in the CGIAR by Christopher Barrett

 

SOUTHEAST ASIA

 

Potential Outcome

ASB partners are providingnegotiation support activities for improved governance and natural resource management inIndonesia. Led by ICRAF, they will carry out intensive and integrated work on land tenure, strengthening capacity for watershed groups, and the identification of INRM technical innovations that improve farmer, community, and local government-based natural resource management in Lampung and East Kalimantan through improved agroforestry germplasm and production systems. They will disseminate the NSS products to a wide variety of targets audiences and building capacity to utilize the products in areas beyond the initial benchmark sites.

ASB Project Descriptions

 

GLOBAL

 

Outcome

World Bank report (May 2003): "ASB has been applauded . for innovative field research, strong science, and for going furthest within the CGIAR toward implementing effectively aholistic, ecoregional approach founded on in-depth local research linked methodologically across long-term benchmark sites around the world to permit effective scaling up to global level. The intellectual value of this work has derived from the synthesis afforded by careful methodological coordination across sites on different continents, and close working relationships with ARIs and NARS" (p. 15).

Thematic Working Paper on Natural Resources Management Research in CGIAR by Christopher B. Barrett, part of the World Bank OED study CGIAR at 31: A Meta Evaluation of the CGIAR athttp://lnweb18.worldbank.org/oed/oeddoclib.nsf/
DocUNIDViewForJavaSearch/
B9AD800E708F7CB785256D5600505D43/$file/cigar_wp_barrett.pdf

GLOBAL

 

Potential Outcome

Outreach activities to extend results to new sitesare taking place, for example toMadagascar in July and October 2004. A wealth of potentially useful knowledge already exists and, together with problem identification at new sites, there can be comparative discussion of these lessons and insights from the long-established ASB benchmark sites. OtherSouth-South learning is in progress in the Amazon (including withColombia), Mount Elgon (Uganda) and theisland ofBorneo.

§  Draft proposal with Cornell University

§  Trip reports from Mohamed Bakarr and Tom Tomich

W & C AFRICA

 

Output

Related to ASB's work on tree domestication,Cameroonpartners have supported thesignificant spread of on-farm nurseriesthroughout the country and region. Specifically, the ICRAF team has been supporting rehabilitation of degraded forest and ecosystems in the war ravaged Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) by sharing their experience with participatory tree domestication. They have already trained more than 60 representatives of community based organizations and partner NGOs in the domestication of local fruits and medicinal tree species in Equateur and Badundu provinces.

§  Stats from TVE proposal

§  "Success Story Details" document

§  Highlights from Cameroon

§  Video Zac Tchoundjeu

§  Contact Ebenezar Asaah

§  ICRAF story by Catherine Momha, "Tree domestication to rehabilitate forest ecosystems in the DRC"

 

SOUTHEAST ASIA

 

Impact

 

In Indonesia, ASB researchers are working to strengthen forest tree germplasm security for NGOs and smallholders inIndonesiathrough nursery development. Nursery work is also happening in thePhilippinesthrough the efforts of ASB partners.

§  ASB Project Descriptions

§  Work by Jim Roshetko and team

§  Video Romulo Aggangan

AMAZON

 

Outcome

ASB has contributed towomen's empowermentthrough its support of AMUCAU (Asociación de Mujeres Campesinas de Ucayali Women's empowerment in Peru), including training, enterprise formation and policy formulation. Former AMUCAU President Elena Trigoso-Grandes says, "Before, I didn't even know how to organize a meeting. When I spoke [in front of a group], I trembled.Today, through AMUCAU, I am participating at the national level to help develop a forestry strategy forPeru." (ASB Voices, 2002)

§  ASB Project Descriptions

§  ASB Voices #4 - Elena Trigoso-Grandes

§  Tinker Foundation project report: "Empowerment of small scale farmers in the Peruvian Amazon through organization and entrepreneurship"

AMAZON

 

Outcome

Related to its support of AMUCAU, ASB partners in Peru have led intensive training of a formal farmers' network in the production and sale of certified seed and seedlings(PROSEMA, Asociación de Productores de Semilla y Madera de Alta Calidad de la Cuenca del Aguaytía). Two limited companies have been formed under the guidance of ICRAF.  This is linked to government reforestation efforts in Peru. This project aims at generating a model for smallholder enterprise development in the Peruvian Amazon.

§  ASB Project Descriptions

§  Tinker Foundation project report

GLOBAL

 

Output

Potential Outcome

ASB's training workshop in scenario formulation and use, as well as its follow-on country workshops, help create capacity among ASB partners to formulate and use scenarios with a range of stakeholders. Building this capacity among developing country partners within ASB adds a forward-looking dimension to ASB priority-setting that, until now, has been ad hoc and relatively weak.

§  Concept note on scenarios work

§  "Success Story Details" document

§  Follow-up proposals for in-country scenarios workshops

 

AMAZON

 

Outcome

Potential Impact

Forest margins research in Peruhas benefited from the ASB consortium and vice versa. Theimplementation of agricultural varieties has increasedbased on interaction created by ASB activities. National research partners and universities have started toinclude agroforestry within their workplans and curricula.Training in tree domestication and genetic resource management has motivated INIA, INRENA and others to institutionalize these projects, thereby scaling up and scaling out these activities inPeru.

ASB Peru Synthesis Report

 

GLOBAL

 

Outcome

"As aUniversity ofCalifornia,Davis graduate student I have found the outputs generated by the ASB Programme extremely useful. In addition to reviewing the ASB lecture notes and the extensive number of professional publications, I regularly consulted the ASB matrix developed by the Working Group on Economic and Social Indicators to guide my research approach in the southern uplands ofBelize. The matrix has provided an accessible and clear framework in which to evaluate socio-economic issues related to existing slash-and-burn land use and the adoption of shade grown cacao among smallholders in the region. I envision drawing further on research completed by the ASB programme to evaluate the policy and institutional environments that affect the adoption of land use systems.The comprehensive and interdisciplinary nature of the programme has been invaluable from my perspective in international agricultural development."

Travis Marcotte (personal communication, May 2002, forwarded by Steve Vosti)

 

BRAZIL

 

Output

(ASB material is used in) short courses on sustainable forest management for people working in forests in Acre State, Brazil.

Contact Marcus Vinicio Neves D´Oliveira

SOUTHEAST ASIA

 

Activity

Outcome

Impact

In ongoing work in the Mae Chaem watershed inNorthern Thailand, scientists are working with communities to develop and validate methods that thecommunities themselves then use to monitor their watershed function and environment.. Early experiences with monitoring suggest that they can greatly strengthen these communities' positions in negotiations to resolve environmental problems with neighbouring communities and with the Thai Royal Forest Department. Connections with local environmental knowledge also improve scientists' understanding of environmental problems and widen the range of local livelihood options and appropriate interventions considered by researchers. One Mae Chaem community involved in watershed monitoring was given the Forest Reserve and Nature Conservation Award from the "Suan Pa Sirikit Project" which is Queen Sirikit's initiative program on forest conservation.

§  "Success Story Details" document

§  ASB Project Descriptions

§  ASB Policybrief #7

§  ASB Voices #6 - Somkit Kirikumsap

§  TVE Video

§  News article from ICRAF: "Convergence and Divergence: Conflicts and Confluence in Watershed Management and Environmental Governance in Northern Thailand"

 

SOUTHEAST ASIA

 

Activity

Outcome

Villagers in the Kongkha sub-catchment of the Mae Chaem watershed are supported by ICRAF to use simple GIS maps they have helped localize with their own local place namesand land use categories, to discuss their land use patterns and practices and other issues they currently face in managing their village and sub-catchment landscapes.

§  TVE Video for Hands On about ASB's Mae Chaem watershed work

§  ASB Policybrief #7

GLOBAL

 

Outcome

ASB supportsyoung researchers, especially from developing countries, to become the next generation of development and research leaders across the tropics. This includes joint work with interns, research associates, junior professional officers, postdoctoral fellows, universities, etc.

§  Concept note on building capacity of southern scientists

§  Story of Sandra Velarde

§  ASB Video - Marilia Locatelli "Southern Scientist Capacity-Building"

 

W & C AFRICA

 

Outcome

As part of theCameroon IRAD / ASB Project (1999-2004),extensive training was conducted. 3 junior scientists were trained to a Masters in Natural Resource Management and in modeling. 1 junior scientist was trained to the PhD level. 422 farmers underwent short training courses on NRM and on landscape sustainability indicators. 15 national scientists were trained on carbon stock research methodology. 4 scientists were trained on the development of future scenarios.

Contact Jean Tonye

W & C AFRICA

 

Outcome

Impact

"For us here in Africa, ASB is one the best projects we have had in the last 10 years, as far as farmers' impact, institutional building, inter-institutional collaboration and as far as bridging the biodiversity conservation and increasing the agricultural productivity are concerned. It should be noted that the scaling-up methodology was taught to young African scientists by the ASB Project and it is now very well applied by many African NARES." Jean Tonye, Director, Farming Systems, IRAD ( Cameroon's national agricultural research agency), National Facilitator, ASB. 

§  Quote from Jean Tonye. ASB National Facilitator, IRAD (national research organization), Cameroon. Central Africa

§  ASB Video - Jean Tonye "ASB Presents a Basket of Options"

 

W & CAFRICA

 

Outcome

The IRAD / ASB team inCameroon won a National Research Prize in 2002for best research programme or project in a given year. Jean Tonye, Director, Farming Systems, IRAD, National Facilitator, ASB: "This means that the ASB work has made a real impact inCameroon, mainly in the domain of integrating agricultural production and environmental protection issues."

Jean Tonye (personal communication, October 16, 2003)

 

 

Knowledge Generation & Use

Image

Where, What

Story

More Information

GLOBAL

 

Output

Potential Outcome

In the ten years since 1994, ASB scientists have produced more than 700 publications and other scientific products, including over 200 journal articles and more than 90 books and book chapters, and a public website. These are widely distributed through our network of partners, including to the libraries of major universities (e.g.Cornell University) and international organizations (e.g. IUCN - World Conservation Union).

§  "Success Story Details" document

§  List of ASB synthesis publications

§  ASB Publications database

§  ASB Website, www.asb.cgiar.org

GLOBAL

 

Outcome

Output

ASB has achieved sustained engagement betweenscientists and "policy shapers" over the past decade, including through the ASB Policybriefs Series. Policybriefs are distributed to more than 750 readers in institutions ranging from the World Bank to the Ministry of Environment in the Netherlands to the Ministry of Agriculture in Peru.

§  "Success Story Details" Document

§  ASB Policybriefs series

 

GLOBAL

 

Outcome

Potential Impact

The ASB matrix method was adopted as a tool for sustainable land management (SLM) by the World Bank in 2004. Bank Land Resources Advisor Eric Fernandes to Kenneth Chomitz and other Bank officials: "The ASB consortium is one of the very few groups to have tackled this problem [of assessing synergies and tradeoffs] head on and they have developed a matrix and associated methods and indicators that facilitate tradeoff analyses. What do you think about using their matrix as a jump-off point for our continued discussions on environmental services and payments against a backdrop of the key biophysical, environmental, social, economic and institutional indicators identified in their work?"

§  "Success Story Details" document

§  Kenneth Chomitz (personal communication, 19 March 2004)

§  Eric Fernandes (personal communication 18 March 2004)

 

GLOBAL

 

Outcome

The ASB Policybriefs series has been used in courses at University of California ( Berkeley), Southern Cross University ( Australia), University ofCalifornia ( Davis), Lund University ( Sweden),Cornell University, and others.

§  Chris Barrett ( CornellUniversity)

§  Robin Marsh (UC Berkeley, 2003)

§  Jerry Van Clay (Southern Cross, 2002)

§  Steve Vosti (UC Davis, 2003)

 

SOUTHEAST ASIA

 

Outcome

The basic article describing the ASB matrix methodology is reprinted in The Economic Development of Southeast Asia (Hal Hill, ed.,Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing). This multi-volume collection is intended to represent an element of a core collection for university libraries across Southeast Asia.

§  "Agricultural Development with Rainforest Conservation: Methods for Seeking Best Bet Alternatives to Slash-and-Burn, with Applications toBrazil and Indonesia" in The Economic Development of Southeast Asia (Hal Hill, ed.,Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing)

 

AMAZON

 

Outcome

Potential Impact

ASB methodology (including the matrix) features significantly in the design of a $16 million, 7 year project being planned in Brazil through UNDP-GEFvia Pro-Natura on "Promoting Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biodiversity in Frontier Forests in Northwest Mato Grosso".

Andy Gillison (personal communication - 30 June 2001)

 

AMAZON

 

Outcome

The "fundamental concepts and measurements contained in [a report on Ecuador produced for IDRC] have their origins in collaborative field research done by members of the ASB" team. They were used for socioeconomic analyses ofproduction systems in Ecuador.

Final report to IDRC by Steve Vosti et al. (Summer 2004)

SOUTHEAST ASIA

 

Outcome

Potential Impact

The consultant leading preparation for a new Asian Development Bank project on "Flood Mitigation in Selected Watersheds" approached ICRAF/ASB to make use of research on upper watersheds in the design of these projects. Meine van Noordwijk, ICRAF Regional Coordinator and ASB Regional Facilitator:  "Influencing the design of large development projects.have potential multiplier effects way beyond what we can plan and achieve ourselves."

Meine van Noordwijk (personal communication, May 2004)

 

AMAZON

 

Outcome

Potential Impact

The ASB Summary Report on Brazil is being used in the development of a management programme for the San Roque Lake Watershed in Brazil.

Andrew Hamilton Joseph, President, Los Algarrobos Civil Association (personal communication - 26 April 2003)

GLOBAL

 

Outcome

ASB has played a key role in shaping understanding of the driving forces of land use change at the tropical forest margins, which has informed debate regarding priorities and approach at the global level. This evolving understanding has influenced ASB's own scientific hypotheses, from a narrow perspective on smallholder productivity growth as the key to slowing deforestation; to a more complex understanding of the various conflicting interest groups causing deforestation and how supporting negotiation at a landscape level is more likely to lead to lasting change. ASB itself was formed as a result of an inaugural workshop held in Porto Velho, Rondonia, Brazil(February 1992) with 26 environmental policymakers and researchers. Porto Velhoparticipants brought the issue to the Rio EarthSummit later that year. They succeeded in including two crucial recommendations about shifting cultivation and tropical forest margins as part of Agenda 21. Before that, the policy debate on how to slow tropical deforestation paid little attention to the needs of slash-and-burn farmers.

§ "Success Story Details" document

§ ASB History document

§ ASB Policybrief #5

§ Evolution of ASB document - TPT draft 18 January 2005

§ Chapter 1 (Sanchez et al) in ASB book

Aerial view of unspoilt area of the Tesso Nilo

GLOBAL &

SOUTHEAST ASIA

 

Activity

Outcome

Impact

ASB researchers developed a cost-effective method for rapid appraisal of vascular plant biodiversity which was developed and tested at all benchmark sites. The method was designed to assess the difference in species composition, functional attributes and structure along a landuse gradient from primary forest to degraded cropland. These ASB rapid survey methods have led to major progress on biodiversity conservation inIndonesia, most tangibly playing a key role in designation of a new national park in Sumatra, covering 33,000 ha presently and planned to expand by another 120,000 ha. ASB partner Andy Gillison conducted biodiversity assessments using ASB methods in the Tesso Nilo area of Central Sumatra, Indonesia. The results were influential indeclaration of Tesso Nilo as a conservation priority area and national park in October 2003.

§ "Success Story Details" document

§ Contact Andy Gillison

GLOBAL

 

Output

ASB produces the ASB Voices series, to convey for a broad audience insights and perspectives from people's real-life experiences and challenges in the humid tropics. The idea of bringing voices from the field to a policy audience has been adopted by others now, including the Sustainable Tree Crops Programme in West and Central Africa.

§ ASB Voices

§ List of ASB Synthesis publications

§ STCP Voices

GLOBAL

 

Output

ASB has made seminal contributions to the evolvingintegrated natural resource management (INRM) paradigm that is characterized by a process-oriented, systems approach at multiple scales and an emphasis on measurement and scaling oftradeoffs and impacts across stakeholder groups. ASB will continue to build on and improve this innovative, integrated approach including through its contribution of a cross-cutting assessment entitled, "Forest and Agroecosystem Tradeoffs in the Humid Tropics (Tropical Forest Margins)" for the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment.

§ CGIAR meta-analysis hosted by World Bank (full report and thematic and working group papers)

§ Natural Resources Management Research in the CGIAR: A Meta-Evaluation by Christopher B. Barrett

§ Annex H of the EU Proposal for a graph of the INRM paradigm

 

GLOBAL

 

Outcome

Henzell Review (2000): "The Alternatives to Slash and Burn Programme has gone further than the others in relating its research sites to the whole area over which the problem occurs, and in scaling up to the global level in its findings on tradeoffs . This is very helpful for the  global debate on sustainability issues."

§ CGIAR's "First Review of Systemwide Programmes with an Ecoregional Approach" (called the Henzell Review) in 2000

GLOBAL

 

Output

Potential Outcome

ASB's contribution to the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) aims to synthesize results across ASB benchmark sites at the tropical forest margins and place these results within the broader context of relevant scientific evidence. ASB was chosen as the only sub-global assessment working across regions in the tropics. 

§ ASB MA Status Report

§ ICRAF 2 pager: "Gauging the Planet's Health: ASB part of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment" (2003-41-LA/SEA/HWA)

GLOBAL

 

Activity

Potential Outcome

In 2003-4, ASB conducted user needs consultations through interviews in key countries to prepare the foundation for its MA contribution. It provides a solid idea of the real research questions of farmers and policy makers across the humid tropics.

ASB MA Status Report (Section on User Needs)

 

 

 

GLOBAL

 

Outcome

ASB was cited as one of only 3 examples of "Partnerships and Network Organizations Supporting Ecoagriculture", with the MA and IUCN's Sustainable Use Initiative.

Annex 7b in "Trends and Gaps in Ecoagriculture-Related Research" (2004) (Louise Buck, Thomas Gavin, DavidLee, Norman Uphoff)

 

GLOBAL

 

Output

ASB methods are making it possible to accurately and quickly assess belowground biodiversity, an approach developed by a team of scientists during the benchmark site characterization phase of ASB. The work on belowground biodiversity is the subject of a major GEF-funded project, the "Conservation and Sustainable Management of Below-Ground Biodiversity" (CSM-BGBD) Project. The project is coordinated by ASB partner, the Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility Institute of CIAT (TSBF-CIAT).

§ Chapter in Slash and Burn book: "Belowground biodiversity assessment: The ASB Functional Group Approach"

§ ASB Project Descriptions

GLOBAL

 

Product

ASB researchers evaluated various tree-based systems at benchmark sites and found comparable average carbon stocks during the course of rotations. In order tocompare the potential for carbon sequestration in a system, a method was developed and validated for computation of time-averaged carbon stocks, or the average carbon stored in the system over the rotation time of the system. ASB calculations indicate that tree-based land uses sequester about 6 times more carbon that annual crops or pastures. ASB findings show that there is potential for increased C sequestration in soils through the rehabilitation of degraded pastures and grasslands, but the largest sequestration potential in the humid tropics is above-ground through the adoption of tree-based land uses.

§ ASB Climate Change working group report

§ Contact Cheryl Palm

 

 

 

GLOBAL

 

Outcome

ASB's work on carbon stocks in different tropical land use systems was used as an input to theIntergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's special report on Land Use, Land-use Change, and Forestry.

IPCC Special Report, Land Use, Land-Use Change, and Forestry (2000)

 

GLOBAL

 

Product

ASB Peru greenhouse gas flux measurements are being used by Colorado State University to create a new version of the CENTURY gas flux model for the tropics.

ASB Peru Synthesis Report

GLOBAL

 

Outcome

ASB mapping efforts have explored overlays between population and deforestation; agricultural land use and tropical rainforests; and other issues. These have shed new light on thescale and scope of the domain which ASB and others are dealing with.

§ ASB maps online atwww.asb.cgiar.org

§ Contact Kate Sebastian, IFPRI

 

AMAZON &SOUTHEAST ASIA

 

Output

ASB partners are researching conditions under which coffee can be grown in shade tree systems, a more sustainable alternative to the prevailing monoculture coffee cropping in Braziland Indonesia.

ASB Project Descriptions

W&C AFRICA

 

Potential outcome

In Cameroon, ASB partners are modeling plausible scenarios involving oil palm development in Cameroon. They will be sharing these results with policy makers to support their planning efforts.

§ ASB Video - Jean Tonye "Oil Palm Prediction Model"

§ Report Christopher Legg, Innocent Bakkam

 

AMAZON

 

Outcome

ASB Brazil results were directly applied in agro-ecological zoning in Acre State, including the first agroforestry potential map (potential land suitability for agroforestry) for Brazil.

§ Contact Judson Valentim

§ Chapter in Slash-and-Burn book (J. Valentim, S. A. Vosti, 2005)

 

GLOBAL

 

Outcome

Louise Jackson of University of California, Davisis consulting ASB's process documentation toguide the reformation of DIVERSITAS, an interdisciplinary international research programme on biodiversity conservation.

Louise Jackson and Steve Vosti, personal communication (September 2004)

GLOBAL & SOUTHEAST ASIA

 

Outcome

ASB's hydrological research on watersheds inSoutheast Asia is helping debunk myths about tropical forests and water. Some specific quotes from an email about a 2005 briefing session at the World Bank: "We are getting enthusiastic reviews for the workshop: 'mind-blowing'; 'one of the best workshops I've ever attended at the Bank'; 'I learned a lot.which will certainly influence the preparation of [watershed projects].' It is clear that [the project results] are getting serious attention and are quite likely to change attitudes and practice." An earlier ASB hydrological study by Sampurno Bruijnzeel was picked up by Polex Listserver, CIFOR's forest policy expert listserver, which goes to many of the key thinkers on forest policy around the world. It referred to Bruijnzeel as "the world's leading expert on how deforestation, reforestation, and logging affect water in the tropics." World Banksenior environmental economist Gunars Platais commenting on a draft of Bruijnzeel's article "found it a great compilation and analysis of what is out there. Lots of debunking going on." He had it translated into Spanish for his work in Latin America.

§ "Success Story Details" document, which includes full email from Ken Chomitz (February 28)

§ World Bank BNPP Comprehensive Water Assessment

§ Chapters in AGEE special issue on Theme 3 Watershed Services, including: "Hydrological functions of tropical forests: not seeing the soil for the trees?"

§ CIFOR's Polex listserver: "Flip Flop Hydrology" (21 October 2004)

§ Gunars Platais (personal communication, 15 July 2003)

W & C AFRICA

 

Output

Outcome

The ASB Voices of the Future provides the perspective of younger members of rural households, especially adolescents. Cameroonian Prisca Oye's story contributed to a deeper understanding of young people's aspirations at the forest margins (leave the farm, become a teacher) and was the subject of some controversy when first released because of its implicit message that young people should have the skills and options to choose a future outside the farm. 

ASB Voices of the Future series

 

AMAZON

 

Outcome

ASB research (the linear programming model and other outputs) helped Embrapa analyze the potential contributions of increased rice yields to reducing deforestation, which turned out to be very low and ran counter to their expectations. Precisely the opposite happened in the context of managed forestry research, again in part due to ASB research that showed the results ofresearch on managed forestry could be beneficial in terms of poverty reduction, growth and environmental sustainability. The usefulness of these approaches has helped raise the priority of social science research in Embrapa's programmes.

§ Steve Vosti (personal communication, March 2005)

§ Judson Valentim (personal communication, 2003)

§ Chapter in Slash-and-Burn book: "Resource Use and Human Welfare at the Forest Margins of the Western Brazilian Amazon" (J. Valentim, S. A. Vosti, 2005)

SOUTHEAST ASIA

& AMAZON

 

Outcome

ASB scientists in Southeast Asia and the Amazon are breaking new ground with their understanding and appreciation of Local Ecological Knowledge (LEK), the understanding that local people have gained through personal experience and sometimes centuries of learning, about the natural elements and processes of their specific agro-ecosystems. LEK is complementary to scientific knowledge, and helps researchers plan and implement projects and activities more quickly and successfully than in the past.

§ 2 pager from ICRAF "Farmers' Local Ecological Knowledge" (2003-24-ES-SEA/LA)

§ ASB Video - Pornchai Preechapanya "Linking Local Knowledge with Science"

§ Concept note

§ Article

 

SOUTHEAST ASIA

 

Product

Econometric models developed by ASB researchers to analyze the evolution ofcustomary land and tree tenure institutions inSumatra, Indonesia, demonstrated the efficiency and adaptability of these institutions.

Various publications by Suyanto, Otsuka and Tomich

 

SOUTHEAST ASIA & AMAZON

 

Product

Regionally disaggregated macroeconomic models were developed to assess the impacts of major macroeconomic shocks and policy changes on land use in Brazil and Indonesia with special attention paid to the Amazon andSumatra. Land uses, including deforestation, incomes and wage rates were simulated for each region. Results suggest that major shocks in the late 1990s will have large and potentially lasting impacts on human welfare and the natural resource base.

§ Cattaneo and Nu Nu San chapter in the Slash and Burn book

§ IFPRI Research Report #129

AMAZON

 

Outcome

The Tipitamba / SHIFT Project of Northeastern Amazonia promotes mulching equipment which allows for fire-free land preparation, providing an alternative to slash-and-burn. University of Bonn and Embrapa researchers replicated the ASB matrix and other methods for a site in the state of Para to undertake a broader analysis of these technologies, in particular bringing in economic analysis (purchase of equipment, returns to labour, etc.) and application of a bio-economic model adapted from one developed by ASB. ZEF News article: "The measurable social costs of slash-and-burn turned out to be lower than expected and do not call for immediate policy action.On the other hand, if this technology is adopted, due to favorable economic conditions, the environmental services of fallowing are reduced."

§ ZEF News, October 2004 "Technological innovations. Potential and Constraints: selected findings from a recently completed project on smallholder agriculture in the Eastern Amazon Region"

§ Contact Tatiana Sa

§ Contact Steve Vosti

 

AMAZON

 

Outcome

Potential Impact

As part of the Tipitamba / SHIFT Project in the Eastern Amazon, a study was carried out by theUniversity of Bonn and Embrapa. It shows potential for exchange among ASB partners in East and West Amazon. ZEF News article: "Technological innovations emerging in the Eastern and the Western Amazon were juxtaposed to investigate options that one region could provide to the other.Improved pasture technologies for cattle production and legume-based fallow systems [developed by ASB partners] in the Western Amazon represent alternatives for larger and capital-endowed farmers in the Eastern Amazon."

§ ZEF News, October 2004 "Technological innovations. Potential and Constraints"

§ Contact Tatiana Sa

§ Contact Judson Valentim

SOUTHEAST ASIA

 

Output

ASB undertook biodiversity assessments of land uses on the Thai and Sumatra forest margins, and did so at a landscape scale. This has set an example for how to work at a broader environmental and social context, as well as provide the basis for decision-making in these two countries. Similar assessments have been undertaken in Peru and Brazil.

 

§ Thai synthesis report (draft)

§ Indonesia synthesis report

§ Chapter in AGEE special issue: "Assessing biodiversity at landscape level in Northern Thailand and Sumatra: the importance of environmental context"

 

SOUTHEAST ASIA

 

Output

ASB / ICRAF's work on rubber agroforestry ("jungle rubber") in Bungo district of Indonesia is now being shared more broadly through video. By highlighting results like how productivity of jungle rubber can be improved by better planting materials, the video is able to document, disseminate and advocate these activities in a way that easily understood by the target audience of farmer and decision makers at the local level.

§ Bogor Tales Vol 3(11) "Jungle Rubber Video"

§ Contact Susilo Adi Kuncoro (skuncoro@cgiar.org)

ASB Benchmark Sites

ASB Benchmark Sites

ASB works at the margins of the world's remaining tropical rainforests, in landscape mosaics. These rainforests are an invaluable natural heritage and home to over one billion rural people. Through this network of sites that spans the humid tropics, ASB ensures that its analyses of local and national perspectives are grounded in reality.

ASB households, communities, and policymakers live and work in 12 benchmark sites in:

These sites are large areas (ranging from about 100 - 1000 km2) for long-term study and engagement with households, communities and policymakers.

All sites are located in the humid tropical and sub-tropical broadleaf forest biome (as mapped by the Worldwide Fund for Nature). This is the world's most biologically diverse terrestrial biome by far, and conversion of these forests to other uses leads to the greatest species loss per unit area of any land cover change. Most of ASB benchmark sites are also biodiversity hotspots (as mapped by Conservation International).

ASB partners work to understand problems, opportunities and constraints of households, and local and national policymakers. In this way, participatory research guides the iterative process necessary to identify and develop policy, institutional and technological options that are workable and relevant.

ASB's multi-site network ensures that the search for effective policy, institutional and technological interventions is well grounded in science, is carried out uniformly, and is appropriate to local conditions and customs. What makes ASB unusually effective in the arena of natural resource management research is that it uses standardized methods and research questions at all sites, thereby generating data and knowledge that can be compared across sites and, indeed, across the tropics.

Adopt context specific solutions to deforestation, UN climate meeting told

By Josephine Njoroge, edited by Elizabeth Kahurani

Ahead of tomorrow`s Forest Day 6 discussion forum on drivers of deforestation hosted by the World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), Dr Peter Minang’, a Senior Scientist and Global Coordinator of the ASB Partnership  said that causes of deforestation are unique to regions and that there is no ‘one size fits all’ approach to ending the problem. “For instance, in Latin America, forests are lost due to establishment of cattle ranches while in Africa, smallholder farmers continue to engage in shifting cultivation. There is also a widespread trend to establish vast industrial plantations for oil palms in Asia and in other parts of the world,” Peter explained with caution that history is a poor predictor of future drivers of deforestation.

Challenges and Prospects for REDD+ in Africa

Done right, REDD+ can bring some attractive benefits to developing countries, including finances that can be applied to various areas of development.

According to Dr. Cheikh Mbow, however, poorly implemented REDD+ initiatives could negatively impact the livelihoods of the very communities it was designed to benefit, particularly rural people who depend on forest resources. Mbow is a senior climate change scientist with the World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) and lead author of the recent new report titled ‘Challenges and Prospects for REDD+ in Africa: Desk Review Of REDD+ Implementation in Africa.” The report sought to synthesize the ever-growing number of REDD+ activities under implementation in Africa, including the actors, objectives, means of execution, and outcomes.

“Within the African context, a range of deforestation pressures, financial resources, technical capacity and a diverse array of interest groups present challenges to REDD+ implementation,” he adds. Read more

ASB congratulates Prof. Fahmuddin Agus on Research Professor award

Please join us to congratulate Prof. Fahmuddin Agus, a representative of the ASB Partnership Global Steering Group on his inauguration as a research professor in hydrology and soil conservation. The inauguration was held by The Ministry of Agriculture of Indonesia and Indonesian Sciences Institute (LIPI) in Bogor, West Java, Indonesia on September 26th, 2012. 

Prof. Fahmuddin (left) being congratulated by familyDuring his inauguration, Prof. Fahmuddin talked about Soil and Carbon Conservation for Climate Change Mitigation to Support Sustainable Agricultural Development. He emphasized the importance of low carbon degraded lands for agricultural expansion and avoiding the use of forest and peatland for agricultural development. He also pointed out several mitigation options that potentially  contribute to economic development, agricultural and environmental  sustainability. These include rehabilitation of degraded lands for plantations, intensification of agriculture, especially among the smallholders and soil organic matter management. He added that appropriate selection of the options of mitigation-adaptation interface will contribute to Indonesia's national pledge of 26% emission reduction by 2020. 

Born in Bukittinggi, Sumatera,  Fahmuddin  earned his BS degree from Andalas University in Indonesia in 1983. His master and doctoral degrees in soil science were from North Carolina State University (NCSU), Raleigh, USA  in 1989 and 1993.  He is a senior soil scientist at Indonesian Soil Research Institute (ISRI). He coordinates ISRI’s climate change related research under the ASB Partnership consortium and under the national research programme. He is also actively engaged in sustainable natural resources management and climate  change mitigation fora, including the Roundtable for Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) and a lead author of the 2013 IPCC Supplement on Wetland Emissions.    

How much would REDD+ boost Philippines forest budget?

By Elizabeth Kahurani

REDD+ could provide a huge financial boost to forest conservation plans in developing countries like the Philippines. A new study titled, Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation plus (REDD+) in the Philippines: will it make a difference in financing forest development?  shows that if the country was to reduce the rate of forest degradation by 5 to 15% and at the same time increase reforestation rate by 1.5% annually, Philippines could approximately sequester up to 60million tonnes of carbon by 2030.

Drawing from country experiences to design REDD+ Safeguard Information Systems

A key determinant of REDD+ success will be the continued development and implementation of safeguards. An important element of REDD+ safeguards is systems for providing information on how safeguards are addressed and respected.

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