ICRAF Landscape Approach among success projects at Norad Oslo REDD Exchange Results Bar

REALU – Reducing Emissions from All land Uses project will be among successful projects featured at this years Oslo REDD Exchange Results Bar hosted by the Norwegian and International Climate and Forest Initiative. The event held October 29-20 2013 in Oslo Norway features other fifteen REDD projects from other institutions.

According to NORAD, the projects were selected because "they were concrete and had significant results and/or impacts, inspirational, and serve as good examples with potential for learning and transferability."

The ASB Partnership for the Tropical Forest Margins at the World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) has been implementing REALU project over a period of three years in benchmark sites across Africa, Southeast Asia and Latin America mainly in four countries: Cameroon, Indonesia, Vietnam and Peru.

REALU is among pioneer projects to call for a landscape approach to climate mitigation policies with evidence showing that this is a more effective way to overcoming challenges with REDD+ implementation. Indeed, due to an exclusive focus on forests, REALU scientists have argued that REDD progress will be hampered by lack of consistent forest definition, ignoring potentially large emission reduction potential from other land uses as well as major drivers of deforestation such as agriculture that are outside the forest. Coupled with this the partial focus has also made it difficult for REDD to account for cross scale issues such as permanence, leakage and additionality.

REALU incorporates other land uses overcomes these challenges and in addition applies uniform accounting rules for Annex-I and non-Annex-I countries, embraces low forest cover countries proportionately, rewards the rural poor and is thus more equitable.

In Oslo, REALU scientists will be discussing results from the project and how these can impact on the climate change global agenda. Some key achievements from the project to be featured include a new Land Use planning tool for emission reduction planning in four landscapes and six incentive schemes for REDD+ and sustainable benefits in four landscapes.

Download resources:

Project summary brochure

Land use planning for low emission development strategy (LUWES)

Related journal articles

Reducing emissions from land use in Indonesia: motivation, policy instruments and expected funding streams

Migrants, land markets and carbon emissions in Jambi, Indonesia: Land tenure change and the prospect of emission reduction

Climate-smart landscapes: opportunities and challenges for integrating adaptation and mitigation in tropical agriculture

Achieving mitigation and adaptation to climate change through sustainable agroforestry practices in Africa

 Related policy briefs

REDD+ Through Conservation Landscapes: Opportunities and Challenges

Reducing emissions from land use in Indonesia: motivation, policy instruments and expected funding streams

Reducing Emissions from Deforestation, Inside and Outside the 'Forest

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Agroforestry Landscapes contributing to the Future we Want

By Paul Stapleton and Meine vanNoordwijk

The Rio+20 meetings started a process for the world to articulate the future we want through a set of Sustainable Development Goals. Landscapes with forests, trees and agroforestry will be central to achieving many of these goals. As part of its annual Science Week, the World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF)  is staging the Nairobi Landscape Day at its headquarters on Friday 13 September 2013.

The World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) has been working at the landscape level for many years and has accumulated a depth of knowledge and expertise in the approachLandscapes combine 1) people and their ambitions and livelihoods, 2) land use systems with and without trees, 3) patterns of tree cover in space and time, interacting with the topography, soils, climate, water flows, flora and fauna, 4) ecosystem services, or the benefits humans derive from functioning (agro)ecosystems, 5) stakeholders who care about what happens with the services and the underlying natural and social capital, 6) governance mechanisms by which stakeholders can influence, in positive or negative ways, what people do. This completes the circle, or logical loop, leading to overall degradation (in many of our landscapes), restoration or gradual improvement. The future earth we want will have zero (net) degradation, as one of the proposed sustainable development goals articulates. A large new scientific effort coordinated by all academies of science in the world is now zooming in on this FuturEarth concept.

The World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) has been working at the landscape level for many years and has accumulated a depth of knowledge and expertise in the approach. Nairobi Landscape Day will have four events: an eye-opening lecture on future earth, sustainable development goal, agroforestry and experience with landscape approaches so far; a virtual fieldtrip around the world, visiting live examples of how people and landscapes  interact across the 6 aspects;  an open house, where we show our various approaches to landscapes; a discussion panel on the demand for and supply of scientific analysis to support these feedback loops.

ICRAF scientists Cheikh Mbow, Sara Namirembe and Peter Minang will talk about “Agroforestry Landscapes, Sustainable Development Goals and the Future Earth We Want.”

In 2015 world leaders will take stock of the achievements of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and will see evidence that concrete targets that have the support of the global policy community can actually help in reducing poverty. However, the MDG on sustainable development will have little progress to show. In anticipation of this discussion, a UN-lead process has started to come up with a set of Sustainable Development Goals that build on the MDGs but give more operational clarity on the environmental side. Current drafts of the goals suggest that agroforestry can be relevant in meeting many of these SDGs. The lecture will introduce the Future Earth initiative, give an update on the development of the SDGs and start a discussion how agroforestry at large and ICRAF specifically can best participate.

After the lecture, participants will be taken on a virtual tour of the landscapes in Asia, Africa and Latin America where ICRAF works on integrated approaches. Since the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, we have become increasingly aware of the wide range of ecosystem services derived from landscapes. These include things like clean water, flood, droughts and soil erosion control, land and biodiversity conservation, in addition to agricultural and forest production. This session will answer the questions: Who is involved in farming, cutting and planting trees? What benefits do farmers get from trees, agroforestry practices and agroforestry land use? Which trees are where in the landscape? How do trees contribute to ecosystem services? Who cares and is a stakeholder of positive or negative change in landscape performance? How can stakeholders influence and have average on the drivers of change to which farmers respond?

A key feature of the landscape approach is that it integrates land and soil , agriculture, forests, trees, people, animals and water rather than treating them separately.  The landscape approach embraces these various landscape functions and seeks to manage land at the range of scales necessary to ensure sustainable development. After the tour, a summary will be given of the tools and approaches that have been developed during Science Week for integrated approaches, welcoming partners to share their work related to the landscape.

Adopting a landscape approach will have a range of impacts, such as preserving forests, raising the number of useful trees in the landscape, increasing agricultural production and food security, restoring degraded land and halting further land degradation and desertification, conserving biodiversity, contributing to poverty eradication, mitigating the effects of climate change and promoting a greener economy. The mix of these outcomes will vary according to context and local needs and aspirations.

As an essential part of the Day’s activities, there will be a panel discussion on the demand for scientific agroforestry knowledge for sustainable development goals, and the supply of such knowledge by the CGIAR and Future Earth academic science, chaired by ICRAF Deputy Director General, Research, Dr. Ravi Prabhu.

This should highlight ways to meet development challenges that do not jeopardize how future generations will be able to derive benefits from the products and services of the landscapes that support us today.

 Venue:      ICRAF Conference Hall                             

Day:          Friday 13th September, 2013

Time:        08:30 – 17:30hrs

Please plan to attend and distribute widely.  For further details on the event, contact Stella Muasya at  or Elizabeth Kahurani

Study: New actors involved in the fires and haze in Indonesia, Singapore and Malaysia

By Elizabeth Kahurani

For more than a decade, fires from land-use change in forests and peatlands in Sumatra, Indonesia, have left in their wake a smoky haze whose extent enveloped the skies of Singapore and parts of Malaysia. The recent episode took a peak, with a total of 3270 fire hot spots on the island of Sumatra detected in 2013, over 90% occurring in June. Analysts have warned that the pollutant standard index has hit hazardous levels.

Obviously, debates have focused on the actors responsible, with the brightest beam on either the traditional slash-and-burn farming methods of smallholders or the large-scale slash-and-burn land clearing by plantation companies for oil palm or pulp & paper industry, many with a basis in Singapore and Malaysia.

To add to the pack, scientists from the WorldAgroforestry Centre (ICRAF) are pointing to a new group of actors - local investors, often from neighbouring provinces, who make arrangements with villagers sidestepping government permits, acquiring land and bringing in labor for oil-palm production. This makes it difficult for government to identify out these middle-level investors, most of whom are internal migrants ‘hiding behind’ the local informal rules and arrangements. This evidence is compounded by data showing that the large scale concession areas account for half of the hotspots “ the likelihood of having a hotspot increases in the first few km from a large-scale concession, before declining at greater distance” says Meine van Noordwijk, Chief Scientist at ICRAF

To curb on the middle-level entrepreneurs preying on loopholes within the local informal system, the scientists recommend standardized operating procedures that link between central and local government structures, coupled with a heightened watchdog role at the local level that involves the media and civil society organizations.

Further analysis also point to the nature of land-use activities that bear heavier risks and land preparation is most responsible for hot spot areas compared to primary deforestation. “When we overlaid the hot spots with our detailed interpretation of the 2010 land cover, we found that most of the peat now burning was already deforested before”, says Andree Ekadinata, spatial analyst at ICRAF. “This is different from the mineral soils, where most hot spots are in logged-over forests.”

 A look at the areas affected indicates that three districts within Riau province have the most hot spots. “These might learn from other districts in comparable conditions that seem to have had more success in enforcing the existing no-burn policies for large-scale concessions”, says Dr. Sonya Dewi, Ecologist at ICRAF, “but further analysis is needed.”

With data and information linking responsible actors to the hot spots now widely available, the call is on the government to act. The Centre scientists present options as a bundle of ‘carrots, sticks and sermons’—strategies such as regulatory policies, cancellation of permits, naming and shaming, consumer boycotts—measures that eventually could reduce the use of fires as a cheap alternative to land clearing by the various actors.

Download ASB Policy Brief 33: Hot spots in Riau, haze in Singapore: the June 2013 event analyzed

Read Media Advisory

Can REDD+, PES and other payments prevent destruction and degradation of our ecosystems?

By Elizabeth Kahurani

Markets can only be a part of the solution to reversing unacceptable levels of deforestation and forest degradation, according to research from the World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF). “Looking at the whole system and all available options remains the only guarantee, and this means taking a landscape perspective,” according to Dr Ravi Prabhu, Director of Research at ICRAF, who was speaking at a side event of Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technical Advice (SBSTA) at the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in Bonn on June 5th 2013.Dr Ravi Prabhu (left), Director of Research at ICRAF, with other panelists at a side event of Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technical Advice (SBSTA) at the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in Bonn on June 5th 2013

Dr Ravi defined a landscape as a mosaic of agriculture, forests, plantations with competitions, trade-offs and synergies between land uses. At this level, there are also multiple sectors, stakeholders and practices. Given that the system is so dynamic, he pointed to multifunctional co-investment mechanisms as necessary means of embracing local people, private and public sectors, PES bundling and stacking as options.

In other words, success was more likely if the needs and interests of all the actors who mattered were taken into account and a framework was set up to allow them to jointly invest finances, time and resources in the landscape in order to derive the values they were looking for. Although this would involve compromises and negotiation, a more diverse and therefore resilient system was likely to result.

The event, hosted by the Global Forest Coalition (GFC), focused discussions on a report on non-market based approaches to reducing deforestation and forest degradation submitted to SBSTA by GFC.

According to the report, indigenous communities have always preserved and protected their forests not just for the economic value they derive from them but also for important cultural and spiritual functions. According to the report, there is evidence to show that areas protected by communities are more likely to survive deforestation and negative environment extractions as opposed to areas protected through other means of control such as government bans. As such, empowering communities to manage their forests remains the best option from efforts to protect the ecosystem while promoting livelihoods. But how?

Debates and negotiations have centered on market approaches such as Payment for Environmental Services (PES) and Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+). Essentially these approaches are based on a financial compensation to forest users for the opportunity costs of more ‘destructive’ land-use forms based on a market price for the goods in question, e.g. water or tonnes of carbon dioxide.

Simone Lovera, Executive Director of Global Forest Coalition warns that approaches based on such market mechanisms should be approached with caution as they could present a higher risk to communities particularly with regard to efficiency and equity. Besides, she argues, political and financial commitments do not match these policy frameworks. “For instance, so far, the carbon market has only realized less than 1% of the anticipated REDD+ funding. Financial constraints therefore bring in the issue of who receives funding, who is going to be paid for what and more often than not it is not the individual households that benefit,” said Simone while speaking at the UNFCCC side event.

She noted that there is need to pay attention to non-market based approaches that ensure recognition and territorial rights of the indigenous people and local communities. These should empower communities by also promoting local knowledge and information systems as well as policies for legal and financial support on land reforms, sustainable agriculture and that discourage destructive activities like logging. “Such means of empowering communities to protect their environment ensures sustainability as they do not rely on unpredictable and uncertain funding flows,” said Simone.

A landscape approach takes into account needs and interests of all the actors who matter especially local communitiesPresenting evidence from ICRAF’s work on environmental services, Dr Ravi used results from research sites in Southeast Asia and Africa to explain some of the PES related challenges especially on issues to do with equity and efficiency (see presentation on Slideshare). He emphasized the need for a comprehensive systematic approach, one that can leverage on best options available from various approaches and deliver on securing livelihoods for communities and ecosystem services. “Looking at the whole system is the only guarantee, and this means having a landscape perspective,” explained Ravi. He emphasized that a market price or opportunity costs based approach generally underestimated the full value of the forests, focused as they were on a particular good or service.

He concluded with the message that agroforestry systems can deliver both market and non-market benefits in ways that empower local communities to ensure sustainability.

Read about our work on Landscape approaches to REDD+

Indonesia upholds Indigenous People’s Rights to Forest

By Elizabeth Kahurani with additional reporting by Martua Sirait, Meine van Noordwijk and Ujjwal Pradhan

Last Thursday, the constitutional court in Indonesia resolved a major ambiguity in Article 1 of the 1999 Forestry Law that claimed customary community’s forests were classified as state forest. This landmark ruling made a clear distinction between customary forests (hutan adat) belonging to the customary communities (masyarakat adat) that were controlled indirectly by the state, and state forests controlled directly by the state through the  Ministry of Forestry (MoF).

China Mountain Communities Adapt to Climate Change

The World Agroforestry Centre has released a new study, Coping with climate-induced water stresses through time and space in the mountains of Southwest China which documents innovative strategies to cope with long drought spells adopted by mountain communities in rural Yunnan, China.

Local strategies include “changing cropping varieties and cropping patterns, using water-saving technologies, improved irrigation methods and engaging in off-farm income generation. At the same time, communities now use collective action to cope with water stresses, including social organization and cooperation, village-level water-management rules, water storage and hiring irrigation managers.”

One of the lead scientists and Jianchu Xu says these efforts can be complemented through dual forest-management programmes, “one for recovery and restoration of natural forests, and one for incorporating trees into farmlands, both of which are based on robust research.”

Read full article

Meeting explores low emission development scenarios

By Glenn Hyman, International Center for Tropical Agriculture

Pucallpa, Peru - Last week more than 25 professionals working on issues related to reducing greenhouse gas emissions met in the city of Pucallpa, Peru to discuss low emissions development scenarios. The workshop was organized by the World Agroforestry Center (ICRAF) and the Regional Government of Ucayali, with participation of other institutions working in sustainable development in the region. The initiative is an activity of the ASB Partnership for the Tropical Forest Margins.

Group discussion during training on methodologies to estimate the costs and benefits of development, Pucallpa, PeruThe workshop was a combination of discussions on regional planning and of training in methodologies to estimate the costs and benefits of development. During the workshop’s first day, participants discussed different development scenarios, including the effects of increases in deforestation and increases in the development of certain crops. Subsequent days were used to estimate the impact of different development scenarios. Toward that end, ICRAF scientists gave training in the ABACUS software. Sonya Dewi and Degi Harja, of ICRAF’s Southeast Asia headquarters, traveled all the way from Indonesia to give instructions and how to use the software tool, as well as explaining low emissions development planning methodology. ABACUS  estimates greenhouse gas emissions and sequestration from land-use change and the opportunity costs of avoiding such changes.

On the last day of the workshop, workgroups presented the results of their simulations before a group of decision-makers in the region, including Franz Orlando Tang Jara, director of the Natural Resources Department of Ucayali and Miguel Vasquez, President of the Oil Palm Roundtable, among others. A news article by Peru national REDD Group had earlier indicated that the training would benefit officials from various government ministries.

The participants produced many interesting results and many questions to be answered with future research. Finding a balance between economic development and reducing greenhouse gas emissions will have its complications and difficulties. Some projections for growth of the oil Palm industry are going to imply substantial conversion of forests simply for the lack of other available lands. The development of new transportation infrastructure may have enormous impacts and requires much more research to understand the costs and benefits of these planned developments. The ASB  Partnership will publish a final report of the workshop at the end of May.

Read this article in Spanish here

Download: Landuse Planning for Low Emission Development Strategy

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